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who changed the world

100 Minorities Who Changed The World in the 20th Century

1. Ali, Muhammad
muhammad-ali
A former American boxer and three-time World Heavyweight Champion, who is widely considered one of the greatest heavyweight championship boxers. In 1967, Ali refused to be conscripted into the U.S. military, based on his religious beliefs and opposition to the Vietnam War. He was arrested and found guilty on draft evasion charges, stripped of his boxing title, and his boxing license was suspended. These personality quips and idioms, along with an unorthodox fighting technique, made him a cultural icon.

2. Ali Khan, Nusrat Fateh
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
World-renowned Pakistani musician, was primarily a singer of Qawwali, the devotional music of the Sufis (a mystical tradition within Islam). Considered one of the greatest singers ever recorded, he possessed a six-octave vocal range and could perform at a high level of intensity for several hours. He is also widely considered to be the most important qawwali in history.

3. Arafat, Yasser
Yasser_Arafat
Palestinian leader and a Laureate of the Nobel Prize. Arafat remains a highly controversial figure whose legacy has been widely disputed. He was “revered by many Arabs,” and the majority of the Palestinian people, regardless of political ideology or faction, viewed him as a freedom fighter who symbolized their national aspirations and “was willing to stop at nothing short of achieving it”.

4. Armstrong, Neil
Neil Armstrong
American aviator and a former astronaut, test pilot, aerospace engineer, university professor, and United States Naval Aviator. He was the first person ever to set foot on the Moon.

5. Banksy
Banksy
The pseudonym of a British graffiti artist, political activist and painter, whose identity is unconfirmed. His satirical street art and subversive epigrams combine irreverent dark humour with graffiti done in a distinctive stencilling technique. Such artistic works of political and social commentary have been featured on streets, walls, and bridges of cities throughout the world.

6. Basquiat, Jean-Michel
Basquiat
American artist. His career in art began as a graffiti artist in New York City in the late 1970s, and in the 1980s produced Neo-expressionist painting.

7. Berners-Lee, Tim
Tim Berners Lee
Started the World Wide Web in 1989, designing and building the first Web browser, editor and server. The widely adopted technologies transformed the way information is created and consumed.

8. Beatles, The
the beatles
English rock band, formed in Liverpool in 1960, and one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed acts in the history of popular music. The nature of their enormous popularity, which first emerged as the “Beatlemania” fad, transformed as their songwriting grew in sophistication. The group came to be perceived as the embodiment of progressive ideals, seeing their influence extend into the social and cultural revolutions of the 1960s.

9. Bohr, Niels
Niels Bohr
Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

10. Brando, Marlon
marlon brando
American actor who performed for over half a century. Brando had a significant impact on film acting, and was the foremost example of the “method” acting style. While he became notorious for his “mumbling” diction, his mercurial performances were nonetheless highly regarded, and he is now considered one of the greatest American film actors of the twentieth century.

11. Braun, Karl Ferdinand
Karl Ferdinand Braun
German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics. Braun contributed significantly to the development of the radio and TV technology.

12. Cage, John
John Cage
American composer, philosopher, poet, music theorist, artist. A pioneer of non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde. Critics have lauded him as one of the most influential American composers of the 20th century.

13. Castro, Fidel
fidel castro
Cuban political leader and former communist revolutionary. Castro is currently most active in commenting on world affairs, commonly in the form of his regularly published Reflections, articles offering his view on world events from US foreign policy to global warming.

14. Chadwick, Sir James
James Chadwick
English Nobel laureate in physics awarded for his discovery of the neutron.

15. Chanel, Coco
Coco Chanel
Pioneering French fashion designer whose modernist philosophy, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her an important figure in 20th-century fashion. She was the founder of the famous fashion brand Chanel.

16. “Che” Guevara, Ernesto
che-guevara
Commonly known as El Che or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat, military theorist, and major figure of the Cuban Revolution. Since his death, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol and global insignia within popular culture).

17. Coltrane, John
John Coltrane
American jazz saxophonist and composer. Working in the bebop and hard bop idioms early in his career, Coltrane helped pioneer the use of modes in jazz and later was at the forefront of free jazz.

18. Crick,Francis; Watson, James; and Franklin, Rosalind
Francis Crick, James Watson and Rosalind Franklin
English-born Francis Crick and his American colleague James Watson made one of the most dazzling discoveries in the history of science in 1953 when they accurately decoded the structure of the DNA molecule. They would not, however, have been able to identify the twisted ladder shape of the DNA double helix without the help of English scientist Rosalind Franklin’s X-ray images, which Watson saw without her knowledge. Franklin, who exposed herself to dangerous levels of radiation to get her X-ray images, died of cancer in 1958 at the age of 37. And so it was her colleague, Maurice Wilkins, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for medicine with Watson and Crick.

19. Curie, Marie
Marie Curie
Polish physicist and chemist, Marie Curie was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity, the only person honored with Nobel Prizes in two different sciences.

20. Conrad Röntgen, Wilhelm
irontge001p1
German physicist who produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

21. Coppola, Francis Ford
Francis Ford Coppola
Italian-American film director, producer and screenwriter. He is widely acclaimed as one of Hollywood’s most influential film directors. One of America’s most celebrated filmmakers, he epitomized the group of filmmakers known as the New Hollywood, who emerged in the early 1970s with unconventional ideas that challenged contemporary filmmaking.

22. Dalai Lama XIV
Dalai Lama XIV
Well known for his political activities relating to the Tibetan independence movement, although he has recently moderated his stance. Tibetans traditionally believe him to be the reincarnation of his predecessors and a manifestation of the Buddha of Compassion.

23. Disney, Walt
Walt Disney
American film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, animator, entrepreneur, entertainer, international icon, and philanthropist. Disney is famous for his influence in the field of entertainment during the 20th century. As the co-founder–with his brother Roy O. Disney–of Walt Disney Productions, Disney became one of the best-known motion picture producers in the world.

24. Dolan, Charles
Charles Dolan
American billionaire and founder of Cablevision and HBO. His pioneering work in the commercial use of cables, won a franchise to build a cable system in Lower Manhattan in New York. The new system, which Dolan called “Sterling Manhattan Cable”, became the first urban underground cable system in the United States of America.

25. Dunant, Jean Henri
Henry Dunant
Swiss businessman and social activist. Also the first-ever Nobel Peace Prize for his role in founding the International Red Cross Movement and initiating the Geneva Convention.

26. Dylan, Bob
Bob Dylan
American singer-songwriter who has been a major figure in music for five decades. A number of his songs such as “Blowin’ in the Wind” and “The Times They Are a-Changin'” became anthems for the US civil rights and anti-war movements. His early lyrics incorporated a variety of political, social and philosophical, as well as literary influences.

27. Eavis, Michael
Michael Eavis
English dairy farmer and the founder of the Glastonbury Festival, which takes place on his farm. He has used the profits from the festival to support charitable causes including local projects such as the restoration of the Tithe Barn, Pilton. In November 2008, during an appearance on the BBC Radio 4 programme Desert Island Discs, Eavis stated that the festival would never lose its licence due to the contribution it makes to the local economy.

28. Edison, Thomas
thomas-edison
American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. He was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large teamwork to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.

29. Eggan, Kevin
Kevin Eggan
Kevin Eggan is leading the way to a world where stem cells–which have tremendous medical promise because of their potential to replace any damaged cell in the body–could be made without destroying embryos. He is also becoming one of science’s more outspoken voices, defending the necessity of pursuing embryonic cell research through all available means as a way of understanding scourges like diabetes and Lou Gehrig’s disease.

30. Einstein, Albert
Albert Einstein
German physicist, is best known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass–energy equivalence, expressed by the equation E = MC2.

31. Escobar, Pablo
Pablo Escobar
Colombian drug lord. Often referred to as the “World’s Greatest Outlaw”, he was perhaps the most elusive cocaine trafficker ever to have lived. He is regarded as the richest and most successful criminal in world history.

32. Estefan, Gloria
Gloria Estefan
Cuban American singer, songwriter and actress. She is in the top 100 best selling music artists with over 90 million albums sold worldwide, 26.5 million of those in the United States alone. She has won seven Grammy Awards, she is the most successful crossover performer in Latin music to date.

33. Fermi, Enrico
Fermi
Italian physicist particularly known for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics. He was awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on induced radioactivity.

34. Fleming, Alexander
Alexander Fleming
Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. His best-known discoveries are the discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mold Penicillium notatum in 1928.

35. Freud, Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry. Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression, and for creating the clinical practice of psychoanalysis for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient, technically referred to as an “analysand”, and a psychoanalyst.

36. Friedman, Milton
Milton Friedman
Economist Milton Friedman’s advocacy of low taxation, limited government and free markets went from the fringe of economic theory in the 1960s to the center of economic policy during the Reagan era. Friedman is best known for arguing that steady, moderate growth in the money supply would produce steady economic growth, and that inflation results when too much money chases too few goods. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics in 1976.

37. Fuller, Simon
Simon Fuller
British artist manager, television producer and creator of the Idol franchise, first seen as Pop Idol in the UK and over 100 other versions including American Idol, Australian Idol, Canadian Idol, Deutschland sucht den Superstar, Idols (South Africa), Indian Idol, Nouvelle Star, Idol (Sweden), Idol (Norway), World Idol and Ídolos Brazil. Fuller is also the co-creator and executive producer of the Fox TV reality show So You Think You Can Dance and other US and European TV shows.

38. Gabriel, Peter
Peter Gabriel
English singer, musician and songwriter who more recently he has focused on producing and promoting world music and pioneering digital distribution methods for music. He has also been involved in various humanitarian efforts.

39. Gagarin, Yuri
Yuri Gagarin
Hero of the Soviet Union, was a Soviet cosmonaut who on 12 April 1961 became the first human to journey into outer space.

40. Gandhi, Mahatma
Gandhi At 78
The pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered satyagraha. This is defined as resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon ahimsa, or total nonviolence. This concept helped India to gain independence, and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.

41. Gates, Bill
Bill Gates
American business magnate, philanthropist, author and chairman of Microsoft, the software company he founded with Paul Allen. Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution.

42. Gaudi, Antoni
Antoni Gaudí
Catalan architect who worked during the Modernisme (Art Nouveau) period but became famous for his unique and highly individualistic designs regarded as beyond the scope of Modernisme.

43. Gehry, Frank
disneyhall0001-Frank Gehry
Canadian-born American Sculpture and Architect. He came to international prominence with works which exploded the geometry of traditional architecture to create a dramatic new form of expression.

44. Gorbachev, Mikhail
Mikhail Gorbachev
After becoming premier of the Soviet Union in 1985, Gorbachev championed “Glasnost” (openness) and “Perestroika” (reform), which heralded the beginning of the end of communism and the Cold War. But his first attempt at radical reform as premier was an utter failure: he tried to stamp out alcoholism.

45. Hall, Arsenio
Arsenio Hall
American actor, comedian, and former talk show host. He is best known for his talk show The Arsenio Hall Show, which ran between 1989 and 1994, and his roles in the films Coming to America and Harlem Nights.

46. Hawking, Stephen
Stephen Hawking
English theoretical physicist and cosmologist.

47. Hefner, Hugh
Hugh Hefner
American magazine publisher, founder and Chief Creative Officer of Playboy Enterprises.

48. Heisenberg, Werner
Werner Heisenberg
German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory. In addition, he made important contributions to nuclear physics, quantum field theory, and particle physics.

49. Herc, Kool
Kool Herc
Jamaican-born DJ who is credited with originating hip hop music, in The Bronx, New York City. His playing of hard funk records of the sort typified by James Brown was an alternative both to the violent gang culture of the Bronx and to the nascent popularity of disco in the 1970s.

50. Hess, Victor Francis
Victor Francis Hess
Austrian-American physicist who discovered cosmic rays. His conclusion was that there was radiation penetrating the atmosphere from outer space, and Hess’s discovery opened the door to many new discoveries in nuclear physics.

51. Hitler, Adolf
Adolf Hitler
Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party. Hitler ultimately wanted to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe, which lead to the outbreak of World War II in Europe.

52. Hoffmann, Felix
Felix Hoffman
German chemist, who is given credit for the first synthesized medically useful forms of heroin and aspirin. He is best known for having synthesized acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on August 10, 1897, supposedly for the first time in a stable form usable for medical applications.Bayer marketed this substance as Aspirin.

53. Hyatt, John Wesley
John Wesley Hyatt
American inventor. He is mainly known for simplifying the production of celluloid, the first industrial plastic.

54. Jackson, Michael
Michael Jackson
American recording artist, dancer, singer-songwriter, and philanthropist. Referred to as the King of Pop, Jackson is recognized as the most successful entertainer of all time by Guinness World Records. His contribution to music, dance and fashion, along with a much-publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades.

55. Jobs, Steve
Steve Jobs
American business magnate and inventor. He is well known for being the co-founder and chief executive officer of Apple. Jobs also previously served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios; he became a member of the board of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, following the acquisition of Pixar by Disney.

56. Johnson, Robert
Robert Johnson
American blues singer and musician. His landmark recordings from 1936–1937 display a combination of singing, guitar skills, and songwriting talent that have influenced generations of musicians. Johnson was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as an “Early Influence” in their first induction ceremony in 1986.

57. Kennedy, John F.
John F. Kennedy
The 35th President of the United States, and the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43. Kennedy is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early stages of the Vietnam War.

58. Keynes, John Maynard
John Keynes
British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments.

59. Kilby, Jack and Noyce, Robert
Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce
Kilby and Noyce independently invented the single integrated circuit in 1959, clearing one of the greatest obstacles to faster and more powerful computers. The microchip heralded a revolution in technological miniaturization. Though Kilby got there first and won the Nobel Prize, it was Noyce’s silicon-based chips that caught on. Noyce co-founded Intel in 1968, and it is today the world’s largest manufacturer of semiconductors. That same year, Kilby built the world’s first personal calculator.

60. Kubrick, Stanley
Stanley Kubrick
American film director, writer, producer, and photographer who lived in England during most of the last four decades of his career. Kubrick made only thirteen feature films in his life. His oeuvre was comparatively low in number due to his methodical and meticulous dedication to every aspect of film production. But a number of his films are recognized as seminal classics within their genre.

61. Kurosawa, Akira
Akira Kurosawa
Japanese film director, producer, screenwriter and editor. Regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema, Kurosawa directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years. Posthumously, he was named “Asian of the Century” in the “Arts, Literature, and Culture” category by AsianWeek magazine and CNN, cited as “one of the [five] people who contributed most to the betterment of Asia in the past 100 years”.

62. Kuznets, Simon
Simon Kuznets
Russian American economist at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania who won the 1971 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences “for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development”.

63. Laden, Osama bin
Osama bin Laden
The founder of the Islamic extremist organization al-Qaeda, most widely recognized for the September 11 attacks on the United States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets.

64. Lenin, Vladimir
vladimir-lenin
Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years (1917–1924), as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a socialist economic system. As a politician, he was a persuasive orator, as a political scientist his extensive theoretic and philosophical developments of Marxism produced Leninism, the Russian application of Marxism.

65. Lucas, George
George Lucas
Filmmaker George Lucas founded Industrial Light and Magic in 1975 to bring his vision of Star Wars to life. ILM went on to revolutionize special effects in the movies, pioneering motion control camera techniques and spearheading the computer-generated imaging revolution in the 1980s. Perhaps more important, Lucas’ original trilogy of movies redefined the economics of the movie industry.

66. Luther King Jr., Martin
Martin Luther King, Jr
American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African American civil rights movement. He is best known for being an iconic figure in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, using nonviolent methods following the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi.

67. Makeba, Miriam
Miriam Makeba
Grammy Award winner, South African singer and civil rights activist. In the 1960s she was the first artist from Africa to popularize African music in the U.S. and around the world. She actively campaigned against the South African system of Apartheid. As a result the South African government revoked her citizenship and right of return.

68. Mandela, Nelson
Nelson Mandela
The first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress. In 1962 he was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island. Following his release from prison on 11 February 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994. As president from 1994 to 1999, he frequently gave priority to reconciliation.

69. Marconi, Guglielmo
Guglielmo Marconi
Italian inventor, known for his development of Marconi’s law and a radio telegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide.

70. Marley, Bob
Bob Marley
Jamaican singer-songwriter and musician. Marley’s music was heavily influenced by the social issues of his homeland, and he is considered to have given voice to the specific political and cultural nexus of Jamaica. Internationally, Marley’s message also continues to reverberate amongst various indigenous communities.

71. Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
Catholic nun of Albanian ethnicity and Indian citizenship, who founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta, India in 1950. For over 45 years she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, while guiding the Missionaries of Charity’s expansion, first throughout India and then in other countries.

72. Nansen, Fridtjof
Fridtjof Nansen
Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian and Nobel laureate. His techniques of polar travel and his innovations in equipment and clothing influenced a generation of subsequent Arctic and Antarctic expeditions.

73. Nash, John Forbes
John Forbes Nash
American mathematician whose works in game theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equations have provided insight into the forces that govern chance and events inside complex systems in daily life. His theories are used in market economics, computing, evolutionary biology, artificial intelligence, accounting, politics and military theory.

74. Obama, Barrack
Barack Obama
The 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office.

75. Picasso, Pablo
Pablo Picasso
Spanish painter, draughtsman, and sculptor who lived most of his adult life in France. He is best known for co-founding the Cubist movement, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and worked in.

76. Pincus, Gregory; Chang, M.C. Chang; and John Rock
Gregory Pincus, M.C. Chang, and John Rock
In 1953 Pincus and his colleague Min-Chueh Chang proved that hormones could prevent ovulation in animals. Similar work was being undertaken by Dr. John Rock at Harvard, and he and Pincus joined efforts to conduct human trials in 1956. In 1960, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Enovid, the first contraceptive pill.

77. Planck, Max
Max_Planck_(1858-1947)
German physicist, is considered to be the founder of quantum theory, and one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century.

78. Poitier, Sidney
Sidney Poitier
Bahamian American actor, film director, author, and diplomat.In 1963, Poitier became the first black person to win an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in Lilies of the Field. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Poitier among the Greatest Male Stars of All Time, ranking 22nd on the list of 25.

80. Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
Reigned as Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005. John Paul II has been acclaimed as one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century. It is widely held that he was instrumental in ending Communism in his native Poland and eventually all of Europe as well as significantly improving the Catholic Church’s relations with Judaism, Islam, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion.

81. Presley, Elvis
Elvis Presley
One of the most popular American singers of the 20th century. He is often referred to as the “King of Rock and Roll” or simply “the King”.Presley is regarded as one of the most important figures of 20th-century popular culture.

82. Puente, Tito
Tito Puente
Latin Jazz and Salsa music musician. He is best known for dance-oriented mambo and Latin jazz compositions that helped keep his career going for 50 years.

83. Rowling, J.K.
J.K. Rowling
British author best known as the creator of the Harry Potter fantasy series, the idea for which was conceived on a train trip from Manchester to London in 1990. The Potter books have gained worldwide attention, won multiple awards, sold more than 400 million copies and been the basis for a popular series of films, in which Rowling had overall approval on the scripts as well as maintaining creative control by serving as a producer on the final installment.

84. Samuelson, Paul
Paul Samuelson
American economist, and the first American to win the Nobel Prize in Economics. The Swedish Royal Academies stated, when awarding the prize, that he “has done more than any other contemporary economist to raise the level of scientific analysis in economic theory.” Economic historian Randall E. Parker calls him the “Father of Modern Economics”, and The New York Times considered him to be the “foremost academic economist of the 20th century.”

85. Sen, Amartya
Amartya Sen
Indian economist who was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to welfare economics and social choice theory, and for his interest in the problems of society’s poorest members. Sen was best known for his work on the causes of famine, which led to the development of practical solutions for preventing or limiting the effects of real or perceived shortages of food.

86. Shankar, Ravi
Ravi Shankar
Often referred to by the title Pandit, is an Indian musician and composer who plays the plucked string instrument sitar. He has been described as the best known contemporary Indian musician Shankar engaged Western music by writing concerti for sitar and orchestra and toured the world in the 1970s and 1980s.

87. Soros, George
George Soros
Hungarian-American financier, businessman and notable philanthropist focused on supporting liberal ideals and causes. He became known as “the Man Who Broke the Bank of England” after he made a reported $1 billion during the 1992 Black Wednesday UK currency crises. Soros correctly anticipated that the British government would have to devalue the pound sterling.

88. Stalin, Joseph
joseph-stalin
Served as the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union’s Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. Stalin launched a command economy, replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization. The upheaval in the agricultural sector disrupted food production, resulting in widespread famine, including the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–1933.

89. Stiglitz, Joseph Eugene
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz
American economist and a professor at Columbia University. He is a recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (2001) and the John Bates Clark Medal (1979) who is known for his critical view of the management of globalization, free-market economists, whom he calls “free market fundamentalists”, and some international institutions like the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

90. Stravinsky, Igor
Igor Stravinsky
Russian-born, naturalised French, later naturalised American composer, pianist, and conductor. He is widely acknowledged as one of the most important and influential composers of 20th century music. The “Rite”, whose premiere provoked a riot, transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure, and was largely responsible for Stravinsky’s enduring reputation as a musical revolutionary, pushing the boundaries of musical design.

91. Tesla, Nikola
N.Tesla
Serbian engineer and inventor who is often described as the most important scientist and inventor of the modern age, a man who “shed light over the face of Earth”.

92. Theremin, Leon
Leon_Theremin_Playing_Theremin
Russian and Soviet inventor. He is most famous for his invention of the Theremin, one of the first electronic musical instruments. He is also the inventor of interlace, a technique of improving the picture quality of a video signal, widely used in video and television technology.

93. Tolkien, J.R.R
J.R.R Tolkien
English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre. This has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the “father” of modern fantasy literature.

94. Tse-Tung, Mao
Mao-Tse-Tung
Chinese revolutionary, political theorist and communist leader. He led the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. He is officially held in high regard in China as a great revolutionary, political strategist, military mastermind, and savior of the nation. Many Chinese also believe that through his policies, he laid the economic, technological and cultural foundations of modern China, transforming the country from an agrarian society into a major world power.

95. Turner, Ted
Ted Turner
American media mogul and philanthropist. As a businessman, he is known as founder of the cable news network CNN, the first dedicated 24-hour cable news channel.

96. Turing, Alan
Alan Turing
English mathematician and logician, often considered to be the father of modern computer science.

97. Warhol, Andy
Andy Warhol
American painter, printmaker, and filmmaker who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became famous worldwide for his work as a painter, avant-garde filmmaker, record producer, author, and member of highly diverse social circles that included bohemian street people, distinguished intellectuals, Hollywood celebrities and wealthy patrons.

98. Wright, Frank Lloyd
fallingwater_Frank Lloyd
American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who promoted organic architecture (exemplified by Falling-water) and developed the concept of the Usonian home.

99. X, Malcolm
Malcolm X
African-American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.

100. Zuckerberg, Mark
Mark_ZuckerbergAmerican computer scientist, software developer and philanthropist best known for creating the social networking site Facebook, of which he is CEO and president.

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