[Jakarta, LTTW] As the mayor of Munich shout o zapft is! (the keg is tapped) in front of the enthusiastic crowd, Oktoberfest was therefore started with a mighty cheer. After a period of time, some may think that the essence of the famed Bavarian festival is to drink loads of beer into oblivion.
If we look into the past, Oktoberfest did not start as a beer-drinking event. The festival can be traced to a wedding celebration taking place on 12th October 1810. It was a glorious day when Crown Prince Ludwig was married to Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen, thus making him King Ludwig I of Munich. The field where the royal event was held was renamed into Theresienwiese —which the locals simplified as wiesn or meadow.
Today, Bavarians celebrate the day with festivity. But it may be a surprise to some that the first Oktoberfest didn’t involve any beer at all. Yes, you read it right, no beer at all. Instead, the celebration was enlivened with horse races and a feast to honor the royal family, which marked the end of the festival on 17th October.
A year later in 1811, the horse race remained in the event because of the success that it brought, making it the first tradition that was repeated for years to come. An additional show called Agricultural Show was held to encourage the Bavarian agriculture and economy. Both shows were the core of this largest volkfest or folk festival in Germany.
The beer-drinking culture itself started in 1818, about 18 years after the first festival when beer pub owners participated by bringing in beverages. Since then, the original setting of the festival had ostensibly changed and made their way to become a mass drinking event. In 1938, the horse race was removed but it reportedly came to an end in 1960. Beer had beaten other traditions and become the superior symbol of Oktoberfest in the modern era.
Nowadays, Oktoberfest in Munich lasts for 15 days, starting from the end of September to compromise with the weather. It is filled with food and beverages, attractions, entertainment, and of course, the Bavarian heritage that can be seen in plain sight.
Beer of course is important as the beverage that represent the culture of Bavaria, but that doesn’t mean we could downplay Oktoberfest to just some beer-drinking festival. Oktoberfest should be a celebration of a nation, showcasing the proud Bavarian culture to the world that has lasted against the hourglass of time.
And for the world, Oktoberfest could and should become a symbol to celebrate life.
[Jakarta, LTTW] In 2007, world renowned Greek classical guitarist, Antigoni Goni, created The Volterra Project, Summer Guitar Institute in Volterra, Italy. This yearly summer school does more than just teach guitar techniques, but also educate young guitarists other fundamental components for musicianship. For its 2018 edition, Antigoni Goni was joined by guest lecturers English guitarist, Laura Snowden, and American guitarist, Stephen Robinson, in guitar master classes.
According to its official website, Volterra Project’s mission is to help young guitarists develop well-rounded and non-competitive approaches to performing, foster a generation of accomplished young guitarists to prepare them for multiple aspects of performing careers, and to bring the guitar outside of traditional performance venues into places of community access. In the summer school, we can join guitar masters classes, seminars on music business management, and classes of music physiology (including luthier presentation) to re-discover the fundamental components of the guitarist; their own body and the music instrument itself.
In a brief conversation with Listen to the World UK representative, guitarist Boo-boo Sianturi (who joined the program twice; in 2009 and 2012) said one of the music physiology lessons taught in Volterra Project is the Alexander Technique –– a methodical process that was created by Tasmanian actor Frederick Matthias Alexander (1869-1955) to change bad habitual patterns of movement and posture. Dancer and choreographer, Clare Maxwell, puts it as the technique that “…give you a way to develop the stamina to be present, the stamina to have fun.” Boo-boo explained that the technique is a “scientified-Western-style of Tantra” because it focuses on the human spine; similar to the seven chakras . It seems the technique helps us to be aware of ourselves to maintain a healthy body, mind and soul. From actor, dancer, to guitarist; from arts, science, to conscience, Alexander technique really is fundamental.
Being A Better Human Being Through Music and Nature
The project is held at Inghrami Farms, Volterra, Tuscany in Italy; a rustic complex and beautiful countryside that provides interactions for students and teachers over a 10-day stay.
Because of the conservatory culture, classical musicians have a tendency to be more competitive. Here, Volterra Project’s aim is to steer away from this notion and provide environment where people can learn, exchange, and experience music with nature as its surrounding.
At the Inghrami Farms, guitars and those who wield it will harmonize with the nature of Tuscany. In 2018, up to 14 students stayed at peaceful apartments in Villa di Scornello and Podere San Piero next to the Volterra countryside. Some may be surprised when taking the instrument out of a building and play it in nature where the sun shine upon, clouds float right on top, and trees accompany them. But for Sacred Bridge Foundation, it is necessary for music to re-discover the sacredness that once gave birth to music itself through the majesty of nature.
At the end, what Volterra Project offer to its student is a full experience that connects people with their own self — merging the body and mind as a part of nature. Utilizing guitar as an instrument that brings people into a spiritual journey, taking it further than just a musical education, altering them to be a better human being. Does playing and learning music in nature sounds strange? Or the other way around, how odd that today’s musician seem to distance themselves away from nature?
[Jakarta, LTTW] People spend their summer holiday in many ways: from visiting festivals or amusement parks with families and friends, to simply staying at home and binge watch on Netflix. But if you wish to find something that is out of your ordinary way of vacationing, where you are not only able to relax your body, but also to expand your mind, then you should set your next destination to “the village of books” Hay-on-Wye.
Hay-on-Wye is a small village that lies on the Welsh side of the Welsh/English border. The town’s name is derived from Norman origin Hay or Haie (a fenced or hedged enclosure) where it stands on the southern side of the River Wye. The village has more than 20 bookshops (mostly secondhand) with a wide array of selection: children’s books, arts, thriller, etc.; all of which can be yours at a reasonable price. On the streets, you will find shelves full of books kept in the open air for the passerby – sometimes with sofa and chairs next to them. These places are known as “Honesty Bookshop” where, instead of paying the books at the cash register, you put the money in the designated box. In these bookshops, ethic is the currency.
The villagers seem to know that providing a unique bookshop alone is not very enriching. So, they created a festival that connects books and people, known as Hay Festival. This festival serves as a space for readers and writers to share stories and ideas. Bill Clinton famously regards this as the “Woodstock of the Mind”. Beside Hay Festival, the village also holds HAYDAYS (sub program of Hay Festival), a literary festival focusing on children and families. A couple of years ago, Hay Festival stepped in to save Hay’s public library when it had to deal with the threat of closure.
History shows that, before it was called “the village of books”, Hay-on-Wye was once a ghost town. After World War II, the villagers left their hometown for cities, hoping for a better job and life. But an eccentric man by the name of Richard Booth turned things around, who later claimed himself as The King of Hay-on-Wye.
After graduated from Oxford University, Booth decided to revive the village. In the ‘60s, he took a trip to the US and brought back thousands of secondhand books and opened the first bookshop in the village’s old fire station. From there, Booth started to collect more books and rented more buildings to serve as bookshops. The village eventually came back to life and has since become a tourist destination and a retreat for artists, musicians, writers, and intellects.
It’s clear that books have become the cultural and economic foundation for Hay-on-Wye; such a perfect example of “good tourism” model where it combines economy, knowledge, and ethics. Perhaps not too many people realize it, but if we look into the first time Richard Booth initiated the book town, we can argue that Hay-on-Wye is not only one of the unseen results of Counter Culture Movement in the 60’s, but also one that continues to thrive.
As one of the earliest, Hay-on-Wye is no doubt the beacon of book towns across the world. Maharashtra, Bredevoort, and California’s Gold Cities are among book towns that were directly inspired by Hay-on-Wye. These towns are a very different place compared to the world we live in, where the existence of printed books are getting replaced by the digital version. One of the indications today is children are introduced to digital technology prior to books (and other physical activities).
From historical perspective, the reason why human tend to replace and abandon old things is because the old are seen as irrelevant. And many people also believe that “change is the only constant in life”. From the eyes of Sacred Bridge Foundation, however, some things do not (and should not) change. Take books for example. As one of the sources of knowledge, books contain values that are irreplaceable by “digital book”; it sharpens our sensorimotor skill (especially for children). Such value must not be replaced since we won’t be able to comprehend, let alone to develop knowledge without it. Meanwhile, the advantages of digital book in terms of knowledge are secondary compared to the printed one (for example, it’s easy to carry). This explanation is not meant to underestimate digital book; on the contrary it is to make clear that both printed and digital books have their own functions. Rather than to replace and be replaced, it’s better if we find a way to maintain both of them.
[Jakarta, LTTW] All Muslims in the world have united as Eid al-Fitr had finally come after a holy month full of fasting. The celebration could be seen as a moment of brood and introspection, especially because this year’s Ramadan was opened with acts of terror that killed innocent lives in Indonesia – striking terrors to those who were affected directly and indirectly. People were left with anger, fear, and confusion in response to the terror attack.
According to Serrano Sianturi in his article titled Trump: Turning USA into Uncle Sam’s Abomination – Part Two “terrorism and its cruelties can grow because of various reasons, such as economic injustice, technological dominance, corrupt governance, low trust societies, power-hungry individuals and groups, and lack of cross cultural understanding and respect.” The aforementioned factors could lead to acts that goes beyond morality and common sense.
What we have seen in these particular terror acts in Surabaya are problematic in many level. One crucial matter is how children were used to participate in the suicide bombings. The word “used” is essential to underline because there is no way children would do this without “guidance” from someone. Adults are mostly aware of the choices they made; children on the other hand tend to follow guidance from other people such as their own families. Guidance is the keyword that made these children ultimately act as a suicide bomber just like their parents.
Fathers and mothers have a role to raise their children with ideals that can eventually be useful in society. They could and should teach children of norms such as religion, tradition, and even law. It gets problematic when the parents’ teachings contradict the common consensus of a nation, harming and even killing others, like the Surabaya bombings that was carried out by a family of five. A child can be guided to become a citizen who understands his rights and duties, or they can also be a vessel of hate that carries a bomb, killing and terrorizing others.
“The self is something which has a development; it is not initially there, at birth, but arises in the process of social experience and activity, that is, develops in the given individual as a result of his relations to that process as a whole and to other individuals within that process,” said George Herbert Mead in his book titled the Mind, Self, & Society (1934).
With that in mind, family plays a crucial role for children’s experience and activity. Although there are other groups or institution that can also guide them, school for instance, family is the number one and first source for them to grow. It’s up to families and all layers of society including us to guide the children in choosing which path they should take, for the betterment or deterioration of our world.
We pray to the victims of Indonesian terror attacks and hope for the best for this multicultural nation’s future. Lastly, we would like to wish Eid Mubarak for all Muslims and to all human being that coexist in this wonderful world. At its best, the holiday will give us a chance to cleanse our mind, body, and soul, so that we, including those who was affected by the terror attacks, will not submit to the chain of hateful revenge.
[Jakarta, LTTW] Man and beast are two completely different species that have intertwined within cultural domain throughout history. Such inter-relation plays a role in modern society by being a symbol to communicate with others through images and characteristics that the animal was known for. One of them is using the mother nature’s inhabitants as a symbol of a nation, region, or even continent.
It’s a common practice that a country takes the mantle of a specific beast because an animal is in its territory. Apart from restoring the population by promoting the preferred animal, nations can also benefit from using the symbol from the wilderness for their own political and economic gain.
Animal Symbol: Peace and Preservation
Ailuropoda melanoleuca or commonly known as the giant panda is an animal loved by the world, and widely associated with China. As the only natural habitat for this black and white irresistible creature, China wields it proud as supposedly a symbol of peace. Panda can be seen as a tool for diplomacy for China, for example, we can trace it back to the period of Tang Dynasty in the 7th century when Empress Wu Zetian sent two giant pandas to Japan. The “panda transaction” continues in 1941 when Beijing as the capital sent the two animals to the Bronx Zoo in New York, United States right before the World War II.
In 1982 the Chinese government stopped giving away giant panda as a part of its gift-giving diplomacy since they agreed to follow the 1975 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora that prohibits such practice. Instead, they lend it for a period of 10-15 years with a lending fee starting at US$1,000,000 to countries such as U.S.A, U.K, France, Norway, Japan, Malaysia, and even Indonesia up to today. The act of lending panda sometimes leads to benefit the foreign relation; the promotion of panda as a tool for diplomacy also brings good will for the endangered animal. More attention is given to pandas, resulting in substantial efforts to restore their population by both multilateral G to G programs and initiatives from international conservation organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
Since 2016, the status of giant panda is no longer endangered as their population started to increase 17% in 2014 totaling to today’s 1,864 in China’s wilderness. This Yin Yang symbol from the wild that was once vulnerable due to the high level risk of extinction, has grown to a sufficient number of population.
There are similiarities in Indonesia regarding the use of an animal as a symbol. The country with an archipelago that flourishes with a wide array of flora and fauna is home to numerous endangered animals threatened to extinct such as the Javanese Rhinoceros, Anoa, Belida fish, Proboscis monkey, and Jalak Bali. Amongst those animal, Komodo dragon or Varanus komodoensis steps into the spotlight and becomes Indonesia animal symbol that represents the country.
That’s why in 1980, Komodo National Park was established in the province of East Nusa Tenggara and since then, the attempt to increase the population has been made. The statistics on Komodo populations vary. Worldanimalfoundation.net stated in 2014 there were approximately 6,000 living Komodo dragons. Other sources such as Jakartapost.com, reported in 2016 that the number dropped from 3,222 in 2013 to 3,092 in 2014, and recently 3,014 in 2015; Achmad Ariefiandya, researcher at the Komodo Survival Program Institution, told that the population on Komodo and Rinca islands is relatively stable while the declining numbers are found in smaller islands. Early 2018, Antaranews.com shared the latest fact on the komodo population in 2017 that reached 3,012 in Komodo National Park including a stable increase in Gili Motang. Although the numbers doesn’t necessarily add up from 2015, the stability of the population was met since the increase in 2015 and has continued in other islands for two years.
The effort made an increase, or at the very least making the population stable. Indonesia used methods such as wildlife monitoring programme that was executed by rangers and staff of the Indonesian Department of Forestry and spreading community education that gives knowledge and shares ideas on natural habitat protection. If it goes well in the future, Indonesia can focus on other endangered animals that gradually decrease in population or perhaps socialize the model that shaped komodo dragon conservation a success.
Just like China that lend their pandas to other countries, Indonesia also enact this diplomacy with their dinosaur like faunal symbol. In 1988, Indonesia government gave away two komodo to the United States. The friendly gesture was made after President Soeharto promised President Ronald Reagan to gave the majestic animals in 1986.
Such practice has continued since the political reformation in 1998. Case in point, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono bilateral relation with Hungary led to the Indonesian government giving the famed beast in 2008. Recently in 2017, Indonesia traded their komodo dragons with giant pandas from China, placing them in care of President Joko Widodo and the government. The exchange that strengthens both nations ties is complementary and Indonesia enjoys a 10 year loan on the couple pandas named Cai Tao and Hu Chun.
An animal can also be shared by not only one, but two nations as a symbol. Look at the critically endangered Bornean orangutan or Pongo pygmaeus; it doesn’t belong to any specific country because this animal exists in Indonesia and Malaysia. The two countries both shared it in the island of Borneo and can be a symbol of both nations but not exclusive to neither one like giant pandas or Komodos. Fortunately, both nations can work together, creating a cooperation that attracts the world’s attention, restoring the current 54,000 population of the “forest man”.
There is even an animal symbol that covers much wider than an island like Borneo with its orangutan. Girrafe, zebra, and lion are animals that can be identified with the African continent. It’s not limited to a specific country, but a whole identity of the 30.3 million km2 land. That is why there are many wildlife conservation and projects in Africa; from local, continental, to international.
Conservation of animals are happening, and everyone from individuals, organizations, to countries should continue working together hand in hand to achieve the goal of restoring the population as well as the ecosystem. This gives us a perspective that mankind is still willing to fight for their well being on this earth, trying to make amends with mother nature.